In 1995, the contracting parties to the climate convention adopted texts with limited and non-binding effects, but which defined fundamental principles and objectives. The Kyoto Protocol, adopted in 1997 and weakened by the non-ratification of the United States and the withdrawal of Canada, Russia, Japan and Australia, set specific binding targets, including figures for industrialized countries, without quantifying the commitment of developing countries. The Copenhagen conference (COP15) recognized the need to limit the temperature increase to 2oC above pre-industrial levels and called for an increase in the resources of industrialized countries. The Paris Agreement, marked by the historic agreement once adopted, owes its success not only to the return of a framework favourable to climate change and sustainable development, but also to efforts to review the management of international climate negotiations. The Paris Agreement is supported by new initiatives that will all be adapted to the difficulties identified at the previous COP. This innovative approach is based on four elements: the adoption of a universal agreement. Define each state`s national contributions to reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Although the text of the agreement does not mention the content of these contributions, it obliges signatory states to establish a contribution plan, implement it and raise amounts every five years. Civil society`s participation in the negotiation process through the action programme adopted in November 2016, which brings together civil society initiatives from 180 countries. In 2015, members of civil society were appointed at a high level to facilitate civil society participation in the intergovernmental process. The financial commitment of developed countries to contribute up to $100 billion a year from 2020. This funding should give priority to the states most affected by the effects of climate change The Paris Agreement is a pioneering environmental agreement, adopted in 2015 by almost all nations to combat climate change and its negative effects. The agreement aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions in order to limit global temperature increase to 2 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels this century, while continuing to pursue ways to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees.
The agreement provides for the commitment of all major emitters to reduce their pollution from climate change and to strengthen these commitments over time.